Archive for the science Category

The Effect of Temperature on How High a Rubber Ball Bounces

Posted in School Work, science with tags , , , , on December 22, 2008 by technowyvern

PREFACE

Elasticity is the ability of a material to return to its original length, shape, or size immediately after a deforming force has been removed.

OBJECTIVE

To determine the effect of temperature on how high a rubber ball bounces.

MATTERS

  1. Does temperature effect the height of a rubber ball’s bounce?
  2. In what kind of temperature does a rubber ball bounce higher?

HYPOTHESIS

  1. Temperature does effect the height of a rubber ball’s bounce.
  2. A rubber ball will bounce higher in a hot or warm temperature.

MATERIALS & TOOLS

  • Pencil
  • Thermometer
  • Freezer
  • Two rubber balls
  • Boiled water
  • Ruler

PROCEDURE I

  1. Two rubber balls with the same shape and size are prepared (the colour is Turquoise and Orange)
  2. The Orange ball is being put in the freezer (O° C) for a couple of minutes.
  3. The temperature of the freezer is measured using a room temperature thermometer.
  4. The Orange ball is dropped from 1 m height and being caught at its arch point (highest height of bounce).
  5. Height of the bounce is measured by marking a wall and by counting the mark height using a ruler.
  6. The steps are done repeatedly.
  7. Result is noted on a paper.

PROCEDURE II

  1. Water is boiled until it reaches 100°C.
  2. The Turquoise ball is being put into the boiling water for 5 minutes.
  3. The Turquoise ball is dropped from 1 m height and being caught at its arch point.
  4. The rest of the steps are the same as the previous procedure.

PROCEDURE III

  1. The Orange and Turquoise rubber balls are placed in a normal temperature room (the temperature is measured using a thermometer) for a few hours to get them back to their original temperature.
  2. Both balls are dropped from 1 m height by turns and being caught at their arch point.
  3. The rest of the steps are the same as the previous procedure.

DATA & RESULT

Orange Ball Bounce Record   Turquoise Ball Bounce Record

Both Balls Bounce Record (100°C & 0°C)

ANALYSIS

  • Because the balls weren’t tested at a 28°C from the start, it cannot be assured whether they have different bounce heights from the beginning.
  • After being boiled, the Turquoise ball gets a little sticky. On the contrary, the Orange ball’s surface was really smooth after being frozen.
  • When the balls were put out from hot or cold temperature, the bounce height decreases.
  • The frozen Orange ball bounced higher than the boiled Turquoise ball.
  • There seems to be about 5.375 cm difference between the bounce height of both rubber balls.

EVALUATION

  • The rubber balls do work like how they should when they are dropped to the ground: “When a ball is dropped to a hard floor, it will rebound. But even the bounciest ball will not bounce back to its starting position.”
  • “The height of the bounce increases as the temperature increases is because as the temperature of the ball has increased, this heat has two effect: the air inside the ball becomes pressurized, and the rubber compound from which the ball is made becomes more resilient.”
  • The rubber balls used in this experiment don’t have any air inside of them. Instead, they are a solid material. This makes the theory of pressurized air doesn’t work with these kind of rubber balls – which explained why temperature doesn’t effect much of their bounce height.

CONCLUSION

  1. Temperature does effect the bounce height of a rubber ball (it is resulted in this experiment that the bounce height changed after the balls were being put into boiled water and freezer).
  2. The rubber balls used in this experiment don’t work the same way as a squash ball etc., so the bounce height wouldn’t increase as the temperature goes higher.

The Human’s Olfaction

Posted in School Work, science with tags , , , , , , on November 14, 2008 by technowyvern

PREFACE

  • Olfaction or the sense of smell is one of the five senses. It is mediated by specialized sensory cells of the nasal cavity of vertebrates, and by analogy, sensory cells of the antennae of invertebrates.
  • The chemicals which activate the olfactory system, generally at very low concentrations, are called odors.

OBJECTIVES

  • To find out whether familiarity of a scent affects human’s olfaction.
  • To measure human’s speed of guessing the source of a smell.

MATTERS

  1. Does familiarity of a scent affects the work of human’s olfaction?
  2. How fast can one guesses a smell?

HYPOTHESIS

  1. Familiarity does affect the olfaction ability. People can guess the source of a scent more accurately if they have already smelled it before.
  2. One’s speed of guessing a smell can be as fast as one second.

MATERIALS & TOOLS

  • Blind fold
  • Mango
  • Plastic bags
  • Melon
  • Peanut butter
  • Orange
  • Cod liver oil
  • Stop watch

PROCEDURE I

  1. Samples of scents are being placed in plastic bags.
  2. A participant closes his eyes using blind fold or by his own hands.
  3. Samples are being put below the participant’s nose for him to smell.
  4. The participant guesses the source of the scents he smells while the time is being count using stop watch.

PROCEDURE II

  1. The participant is allowed to know (see and smell) and is told about all of the samples that are going to be tested.
  2. The rest of the steps are the same as the one showed above.

DATAS

Experiment 1

Experiment 1

Experiment 2

Experiment 2

ANALYSIS

  • In the 1st experiment, the participants had trouble guessing the cod liver oil.
  • The orange’s scent was sweet instead of sour like what the participants expected. They were quite unsure and hesitated on guessing it.
  • The fastest guessing time was 1.45 seconds and the longest time was 28.96 seconds.
  • In the 2nd experiment, the participants already know what the samples are and have also smelled them.
  • The cod liver oil was still the hardest sample to guess.
  • The fastest guessing time was 1.59 seconds and the longest time was 22.68 seconds.
  • The participants could guess melon and peanut butter the best because the scents were quite strong and were familiar to them. 
  • The cod liver oil is not commonly known or familiar, which explains why it was the hardest sample to guess – even if it has the most peculiar smell.

CONCLUSION

  1. Familiarity does affect the human’s olfaction ability.
  2. The olfactory system works properly, but the brain cannot provide the name of the source accurately without having a similar experience and being told of the scent before.
  3. Most of us can guess the source of a familiar scent or smell in one to two seconds at best. But when the smell isn’t familiar, it’ll take a lot more time to guess or just to describe it.

Extrasensory Perception – Sixth Sense

Posted in School Work, science with tags , , , , , , , , on October 26, 2008 by technowyvern

I was given a job from my school to make a hypothesis about anything scientific that I want. I decided to do a small literature study of Extrasensory Perception or commonly known as the Sixth Sense. And this is my report.

ESP DEFINITION

Extrasensory Perception (ESP) – the Sixth Sense – is sensory information that an individual receives which comes beyond the ordinary five senses: sight, hearing, smell, taste, and touch. It can provide the individual with information of the past, present, amd future; as it seems to originate in a second, or alternate reality.

ESP INLUDES

  • Precognition (perceiving information about places or events before they happen).
  • Telepathy (knowing the perception of someone else’s thoughts by intercommunication between one brain and another by means other than that of the ordinary five senses).
  • Clairvoyance (or “remote perception”, is sensing of an object or event out of range of the five senses).

HOW DO WE PERCEIVE ESP?

My hypothesis is that ESP is perceived by the five subtle senses, the unconscious mind, and the brain at the same time.

REFERENCES

  • Based on a controlled laboratory test by research psychologist, Dean Radin Ph. D., a person respond unconsciously to something bad – even before it happens.
  • Radin’s idea is to show a series of digital photographs to a participant. Some will be calm and others will be emotional. Electrodes are attached to the participant’s fingers to measure tiny changes in her skin resistance and blood flow.
  • At the end of the experiment, the data recorded by the electrodes are made into two summary graphs. Each graph shows average changes in her skin resistance and blood flow before, during, and after she saw either calm or emotional pictures.
  • The result of Radin’s test is that the participant’s body was responding to her future emotion before the computer randomly selected an emotional or calm picture.
  • Researcher Lousia E. Rhine proposed the theory that ESP starts in the unconscious, a storehouse of memories, hopes, and fears. At this point a contact is made between the objective world and the center of the mind. The person remains unaware of this contact until or unless the information is brought to the conscious level.
  • Some theories involve the discussion of two subconsciousness. The second one sometimes called the superconscious, soul, and several other terms. The argument rest on the hypothesis that two realities exist, the physical one and the second one. ESP can occur when there is an integration between both realities.
  • It has been doscovered that the natural tendency for ESP in individuals can be distorted by previous prejudices, thoughts, and conditioning.
  • Likewise, inaccurate ESP messages may be the result of distortions and blockages of the conscious mind. However, in times of crisis such as accidents and death of loved ones, ESP messages seem to occur spontaneously.
  • It is theorized that perhaps trauma and shock enable negative information to penetrate the subliminal barriers more easily than happy information.
  • Physical research does support the theory that everyone is born with ESP capability, though some may possess more than others. Most people have experienced at least one ESP experience in their lives.
  • It was found in a survey published in 1987 by the University of Chicago’s National Opinion Research Council, that 67% of all adult Americans believed they have experienced ESP. Eleven years earlier, the figure was 58%. It was thought the increase indicates an increased acceptance of the possibility of ESP among the general public.

http://themystica.com | http://phsycologytoday.com/| http://davidmyers.org/